Citations are essential for giving proper credit to the authors of the material you use in your writing. They also allow readers to locate and reference your sources, which helps you avoid plagiarism.


They can be either in-text or full citations. In-text citations alert the reader to an idea from another source, while full citations give more details about the source. Visit to learn more.

Citations are a necessary part of academic writing, as they show readers that your arguments draw on sources and authors beyond your own work. In-text citations (also called parenthetical citations) are brief references made within the body of your paper to alert readers to a source that has informed your research.

In-text citations are most often short parenthetical statements that indicate the author and publication year of the source, as well as the page number where the quote or idea can be found. They should be cited immediately after the quotation or paraphrase, so they can be easily identified by your reader.

If a block quotation is accompanied by a full reference citation, the in-text citation should include only the page number and not the complete reference. If a quotation is not accompanied by a full reference, indent the whole block 0.5 inches from the left margin and place the parenthetical citation (author and page number) after the period that closes the quotation.

A full citation should be included on the Works Cited page at the end of your essay. However, in-text citations can be used whenever a quote or paraphrased idea does not appear on the Works Cited page, so long as it is clear that your reader can find the full citation in your essay.

Use in-text citations to highlight a specific section of a text, such as a foreword or a chapter from an authored book, or the appendix of a report. If you do not have a page number for the section of the text being cited, consider using other methods of identification: paragraph number, section name, or a time stamp, for example.

Do your citations early on in your research project to avoid last-minute stress. It’s best to make citations as you write so that they are ready to be added to your bibliography when the paper is done.

Style tip: When citing works by multiple authors, always include their first initials (unless the publications are different). If an author has only a family name, do not include the initials.

Full citations identify the source of an idea, a quote, or any other piece of information. They include the author’s last name, a publication date (if appropriate), and page numbers. They must be included in a reference list at the end of an article or paper.

The full citation should be as complete as possible, but not more so. Sometimes, a shorter citation will be sufficient to identify the work in question. In such cases, the short citation can be used in addition to the full citation.

A citation is a necessary part of any research paper. It enables readers to locate the source you have used, whether in a library, bookshop, or online. It also helps you avoid plagiarism, as it provides the reader with a full reference so that they can verify the information you have given them is correct.

Most citation styles require that you provide enough information to allow the reader to retrieve the source themselves. This is especially important for sources that are in different languages or are difficult to find. It is also helpful to provide the volume number, which can vary between editions of books and journals so that readers can find the exact article they are looking for.

In-text citations appear within the body of the text or in a table, figure, or footnote and are usually brief. They will direct the reader to the full citation in a reference list at the end of the paper, which will contain the full details about the source you have cited.

Both APA and MLA Styles use in-text citations. APA uses the author-date citation system, which means that each in-text citation is accompanied by a more complete reference citation on the References list at the end of the paper.

The citation should include the authors’ last names, with an ampersand if needed between them; publication date; and page numbers. It should also include the version of the source – whether it is a book or a webpage, and in what format it was published.